Crater lake – one of the greatest creations of the sorceress nature. Most of them were formed millennia ago from rain and glacial water in natural reservoirs, formed due to volcanic eruptions. Landscape these ponds provide fantastic, therefore, it constantly attracts numerous tourists. One of such natural attractions of our planet is a beautiful crater Lake (The Crater Lake) – that is, literally, “Crater lake”, which is located in the U.S. state of Oregon.
This reservoir has an ancient history – he appeared more than 7700 years ago, after the last eruption of the mazama volcano (Mount Mazama). Over time, they formed on the site of the eruption, the Caldera is a huge depression with almost straight vertical walls and the bottom deep was filled with water and formed lake, leaving on the surface only a few small objects of volcanic origin. One – Hex island (Wizard Island), and today dominates the clear waters of the lake. All the beauty of natural attractions just a professional photographer .
Crater lake is located at an altitude of about 2400 m above sea level and has a fairly large dimensions: 8 by 9.6 km Maximum distance from the surface to the bottom of this reservoir reaches 594 m, making it the eighth place in depth world and second in North America.
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Kelimutu volcano is located on lost in the ocean island of Flores, which belongs to the Small Eastern Indonesian Sunda Islands. Since the island is far removed from the mainland, tourists visit it not so often, Yes, and, frankly, there is almost no infrastructure. The last time the volcano erupted in the last century, in 1968, and doesn’t give any signs of activity. But in the last eruption in the magma formed coldera, which were a kind of cups, which collect water from precipitation.
Today flying over the island can be clearly seen from the aircraft with three bright turquoise spots – this is the famous lake Kelimutu. What are they famous for?
The fact that lake Kelimutu is constantly changing colour. Turquoise lake over the year could turn into turquoise, then after a certain time become red or green. Due to this, however, the presence in water of various minerals. It is the chemical relationship of these components and leads to a dynamic change of color of the water. Well, for example, green lake suggests that, in reaction into hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, the red tint of the water indicates the interaction of hydrogen sulphide with iron.
The local aboriginal people, who belong to the tribe of Leo, there is a legend about Kelimutu. They say that the lakes are inhabited by the souls of the dead. Continue reading
The processes of weathering
Rocks on the surface exposed to the damaging effects of water, gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), organisms and their metabolic products, temperature fluctuations. The set of processes of mechanical crushing (disintegration) of rocks and to chemical decomposition of the minerals composing them is called weathering or supergene . Geological work of wind in these processes plays a very minor role. The most important source of energy processes of hypergenesis is the Sun. In this sense – hypergenesis – a concept inextricably associated with exogenous processes. Development of hypergenesis got the name of the hypergenesis zone.
The term “weathering” (hypergenesis) combined two qualitatively different, although inextricably related, process – physical and chemical. The result of physical processes (mechanical crushing) is breaking rocks into fragments of various sizes, and, ultimately, to its constituent mineral grains; chemical composition of rocks does not change. During the chemical decomposition of primary minerals are replaced by secondary change. Thus, depending on the factors affecting the rock, and the results of weathering processes are divided into physical and chemical weathering.